Advances in the application of microbial additives for dairy cows


With the extensive use and abuse of antibiotics, its drawbacks are increasingly exposed, such as destroying the normal microbial population of animals, leading to imbalance of micro-ecological balance; promoting the increase of resistant strains; increasing the sensitivity of susceptible habitats and promoting the exogenous nature of the organism Infection and endogenous infections; affecting the immune function of animals, reducing the body's resistance to disease; residues of antibiotics and other drugs in animal products (meat, eggs, milk), threatening human health; teratogenicity to humans and animals Residual, even leading to human and animal poisoning death. Especially in the United Kingdom in 1981, the use of "three-in-one" injections of large quantities of antibiotics, hormones caused "mad cow disease" incident, countries around the world, especially Europe and the United States, Japan and other developed countries have adopted official tough measures, the types of antibiotics, the use of methods Limitations on dosage, compatibility and compatibility. EU countries ban the addition of any antibiotics to animal feed after 2005. At the same time, we actively encourage the research and promotion of research on medicinal feed additive substitutes and green safe feed additives. This paper reviews the application of microbial additives, one of the green feed additives.

1 Feed microorganisms used in dairy production

Microecological preparations for dairy cows mainly include bacterial and fungal preparations and active cultures thereof. The ideal strain for the development of microecological preparations using these microorganisms should be: no disease to humans and animals, no hybrids with pathogenic microorganisms; easy to propagate in vivo and in vitro, rapid reproduction; high survival rate and stability of live bacteria after processing Good; it is best from the animal's own intestines.

1.1 bacteria

The microecological preparations for developing cows with bacteria mainly include Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus (Enterococcus) and the like.

1.1.1 Bacillus

Bacillus sp. is only sporadic in the digestive tract of animals, but Bacillus beneficial bacteria isolated and identified from animals and animals have been widely used in animal husbandry and feed industry, and have shown great economic, social and ecological benefits. The main strains used on dairy cows are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus licheniformis. With the application practice in recent years, Bacillus microbial additives have shown many advantages: Bacillus products are endogenous spores, strong resistance to stress, acid and alkali resistance, high temperature and pressure, during feed processing and storage. Not easy to inactivate; Bacillus can produce a variety of effective enzymatic activities during growth and reproduction, some enzymes are often not found in livestock and poultry, such as gelatinase, cellulase, glucanase, etc.; The required nutrients are simple, and the production process of the Bacillus biological additive is simple. The enzyme produced by Bacillus enters the digestive tract, increases the amount of enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, and helps the animal to enzymatically hydrolyze the corresponding components of the fed feed, thereby increasing the feed conversion rate. Since the bacteria are aerobic bacteria, the growth of anaerobic bacteria is supported by biological oxygen scavenging, which plays an important role in maintaining the micro-ecological balance of the intestinal flora.

1.1.2 Lactic acid bacteria

Lactic acid bacteria are a large class of bacteria that produce acid from fermented carbohydrates and are normal microorganisms in the gut of animals. The lactic acid bacteria used for the production of microbial additives mainly include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus (Enterococcus), Pediococcus and the like. The preparations of the preparations are early, the types of preparations are large, and the action mechanism and the mode of action are relatively clear. The production strains are mostly anaerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and no spores are formed during the growth process. It is less resistant and therefore easily deactivated during storage. In order to improve resistance, save for a long time, microencapsulation is required in the production process, but the production cost is increased, so the application of such a preparation in the feed industry is somewhat limited. Lactic acid bacteria can produce lactic acid, acetic acid, multivitamins, anti-biological substances and growth-promoting factors, provide nutrition for animals, adjust the flora, inhibit pathogens, and enhance disease resistance.

1.2 fungi

The fungi microecological preparations for dairy cows mainly include yeast and Aspergillus.

1.2.1 Yeast

Yeast is only sporadically present in the intestinal microflora of animals. The main yeasts used are brewer's yeast and petroleum yeast. Its characteristics: aerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobic, like to grow in sugar and acid environment; bacteria are rich in protein and a variety of B vitamins; heat-resistant, 60-70 ° C 1 hour is inactivated. Yeast grows and multiplies in the rumen. On the one hand, it effectively improves the gastrointestinal environment and the structure of the flora, mainly improves the production of VFA and methane, regulates gastrointestinal fermentation, reduces the production of lactate, improves the stability of pH, and promotes lactic acid bacteria. The growth and reproduction of beneficial bacteria such as cellulose bacteria, increase the number of yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and fiber-decomposing bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, promote the decomposition, synthesis, digestion, absorption and utilization of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby increasing feed intake. Improve feed utilization and production performance.

1.2.2 Aspergillus

Molds are abundantly present in the soil and are not normal microorganisms in the intestines of animals. However, in recent years, such microorganisms have been widely used in the feed industry for high-quality feed additives, which have improved the production performance of poultry and livestock, especially ruminants. The production strains for ruminant microbial feed additives mainly include Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. These Aspergillus can produce cellulase, which is good for the digestion and absorption of cellulose by ruminants.

Take advantage of. Aspergillus can penetrate the stratum corneum barrier of the plant epidermis, destroy the structural integrity of cellulose, degrade the plant cell wall containing lignin, and make the animal more effective digestion, especially in the case of more roughage ingredients, Aspergillus is more important. effect. Aspergillus niger can also produce amylase, protease and pectinase. Aspergillus oryzae can produce phytase, which releases phosphorus from phytic acid and phytate, and is fully absorbed and utilized by animals to increase calcium.

, magnesium, zinc, copper absorption.

2 mode of action of microbial feed additives for dairy cows

In the micro-ecological system composed between normal microorganisms and animal environment, the dominant population plays a decisive role in the whole micro-organism. Once the dominant population is lost, the original micro-ecological balance is imbalanced, and the micro-populations are replaced, resulting in diseases of the animals. The beneficial bacteria in the microbial additive can competitively inhibit the adhesion of the pathogenic microorganism to the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa, compete with the pathogenic microorganisms for the ecological site, and support the dominant flora, thereby being detrimental to the pathogen micro

The growth and reproduction of living things. In addition to probiotics, microbial additives also contain vitamins, enzymes, peptides and various nutrients and some important synergistic factors that are produced by these microorganisms during their fermentation and metabolism. They are a basic source of nutrients and Gastrointestinal regulators. Dairy cows have their own unique digestive system. The rumen volume is the largest in the four stomach chambers. It is a feed processing plant in cattle. About 70-75% of the digestible material and 50% of crude fiber in the forage are digested in the rumen. Microorganisms play an important role in the process of digestion, forming special micro-ecological spaces and micro-ecological systems. The yeast and its culture in the microbial additive can significantly stimulate the proliferation of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria and lactic acid-utilizing bacteria in the rumen, and the yeast can also promote the activity against certain enzyme systems. The proteases, amylases, and lipases produced by Bacillus help animals to decompose nutrients and increase feed conversion ratio. Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria can produce lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, etc., which can lower the intestinal pH of the animal, and produce antibacterial substances such as hydrogen peroxide to inhibit and kill potential pathogenic microorganisms, thereby reducing the number of spoilage bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in amines. Ammonia decline; synthesis of B vitamins and growth-promoting factors to provide nutrition for animals. Microbial additives can promote the growth and reproduction of specific bovine rumen bacteria, and activated rumen microorganisms can promote the utilization of ammonia and the utilization of lactic acid. The use of ammonia promotes the synthesis of bacterial proteins, alters the composition of microbial protein amino acids, and reduces the concentration in the rumen. The use of lactic acid is manifested in the direct absorption of lactic acid and stimulation of other microorganisms to utilize lactic acid to improve the rumen pH environment to stimulate the growth and activity of rumen microorganisms. Probiotics also produce non-specific immunomodulatory factors that activate immune cells and macrophages to enhance the body's disease resistance.

In summary, the mode of action of microbial additives: stimulate rumen microbial growth, stabilize rumen pH, regulate micro-ecological balance; change rumen microbial fermentation mode, increase digestibility of digestible components, increase more nutrient flow into intestinal conduit and facilitate absorption and Digestion, improve feed utilization, increase milk production; inhibit and kill potential pathogenic microorganisms, improve animal immune activity, prevent and treat gastrointestinal diseases in dairy cows.

3 Application of feed microbial additives in dairy cow production

3.1 Impact on milk production

The application of feeding microbes in the breeding of dairy cows has been reported frequently at home and abroad. According to Williams et al. (1990), the Aspergillus oryzae culture and the brewing yeast were similar in feeding cows, which increased the 4% standard milk yield by 1.2 liters/day. Wallace et al. (1993) reported on the results of 18 studies that the average milk yield of yeast cultures increased by 7.8%. George (1990) reported that cows fed silage corn as diet were supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During the test period of 100 days, the experimental group produced 2.4 kg more milk per day than the control group, the milk fat percentage increased by 0.35 percentage points, and the corrected milk fat increased by 17.4%. The milk protein content increased from 3.24% to 3.48%. Wu Zilin et al (1996) reported that feeding dairy cows with yeast culture found that dairy cows increased dry matter by 3.94%, daily average milk yield increased by 0.91kg, and fat corrected milk increased by 1.57kg, which was 4.04% and 7.07% higher than the control group. The milk fat percentage increased by 5.77%, but had little effect on milk protein and lactose content. Hu Zhuhua et al. (2003) used active yeast to feed cows for a 60-day trial. The average daily milk yield was 2.0 kg higher than the control group, an increase of 7.11%, but no effect on milk fat percentage and milk protein rate. Ware et al (1988) conducted two tests to prove that Lactobacillus acidophilus can significantly increase the milk yield of dairy cows (p

3.2 Application of anti-heat stress in dairy cows

According to the test of Mcgilliard et al. (1997), after adding microbial supplements of Aspergillus niger fermentation product, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus paclitaxus, and yeast culture to each dairy diet, 17 of the 32 experimental cows were included. The milk production of the head cows increased significantly, 8 did not increase, and 7 heads decreased significantly. According to the analysis of the experimenter, the significant decrease in the yield of 7 milk milk may be due to the heat stress of the dairy cow during the experiment. Because the test time is in the summer high temperature season, from the reverse side, some cows did not reduce the milk production but increased, which indicates that the feed microbial additive also has anti-stress and improve the physiological condition of the cow.

You Shengbo et al. (2002) used cows, lactic acid bacteria and yeast composite microecological preparations to feed dairy cows in summer. The study found that the average daily milk yield of the control group decreased by 5.3 kg, while the test group only decreased by 1.5 kg. It indicated that the microecological preparation can enhance the heat stress resistance of dairy cows to a certain extent and reduce the serious decline of milk production under high temperature conditions in dairy cows in summer.

3.3 Promote growth and increase feed conversion ratio

Promote growth Through the proliferation of bacteria, synthesis of a large number of bacterial proteins, promote the absorption of the gastrointestinal tract and thus achieve the purpose of improving feed conversion. Fumiaki et al. (1995) administered oral Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus to newborn cows respectively. The Bifidobacterium longum group increased the weight gain by 25.20% and the feed conversion rate by 11.39%. The Lactobacillus acidophilus group increased. Weight 21.65% and feed conversion rate increased by 12.66%, while feeding, belly

The frequency of diarrhea is reduced. Hughes (1988) found that the daily gain of calves supplemented with yeast culture was significantly improved and feed efficiency was improved. Cole et al. (1992) reported that yak supplemented yeast cultures infected with bovine rhinotracheitis virus had more dry matter intake than the control group, especially on the first day of supplementation, and the calf weight decreased slowly. Wu Zilin et al. (1996) reported that cows were fed with yeast culture for 80 days. The daily weight gain of dairy cows was significantly higher than that of the control group (281 g).

3.4 Effect on reproductive performance of dairy cows

There are few reports on the reproductive performance of dairy microbial additives in the breeding performance of dairy cows. Only domestic Yin Zhaohua et al. (2002) reported that using yeast culture to feed dairy cows found that the culture of the bacteria improved the reproductive performance of dairy cows. During the trial period, the effective estrus rate of the experimental group was 29% higher than that of the control group, and the gestational age of the estrus was 11.4% higher than that of the control group, and the difference was significant (p

Table 1 Effect of yeast culture on reproductive performance of dairy cows

Treatment Number of test cattle (head) Number of estrus cattle (head) Estrus rate (%) Number of fetuses (head) Fertility rate (%)

Control group 24 16 67 10 62.5

Test group 24 23 96 17 73.9

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