Plant protection mechanization technology


(a) Technical content

Plant protection mechanization technology mainly refers to the mechanized control technology of crop pests and weeds. According to the method of applying chemical agents, the types of plant protection machinery include sprayers, misters, ultra-low-volume sprayers, dusters, and smoke sprayers.

(II) Technical Requirements

1. Agronomic preparation

(1) Prevention and control techniques for winter wheat disease during planting and seedling stage

Sowing period and seedling stage are the key periods for preventing various diseases and pests of winter wheat. In order to preserve seedlings and promote seedling growth, it is necessary to do a good job of preventing and controlling species transmission, soil transmission, and underground pests and weeds. First, according to the situation of fertility, it is necessary to select good breeds, resist pests and diseases, and pay attention to the variety layout; the second is to use seed coating or seed dressing.

(2) Seed and Seedling Pest Control Technology of Rape

Rapeseed sowing time and seedling stage are favorable opportunities for pest control and prevention. First, it is necessary to adopt varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases, and to cultivate healthy, disease-free seedlings without pests and diseases to the field. Second, soil treatment and pesticide seed dressing should be used to prevent and control pests and diseases.

2. Machine preparation

The choice of tools. Care should be taken to select efficient, environmentally friendly, low-volume, anti-drift, plant protection machinery in accordance with the type of crop, variety, size of plots, and application of pesticides.

At present, Daejeon mainly uses knapsack-type manual sprayers, backpack-type mobile spray dusters, and airborne (machined) sprayer sprayers. Applicable models and suitable injection components should be selected according to different crops and different growth stages.

3. Implementation points

(1) Before use, pay attention to the correct deployment of pesticide dosage according to agronomic requirements and pesticide use instructions; during use, pay attention to safe operation, with particular attention to the use of protective equipment (masks, gloves, etc.) when using backpack-type plant protection devices, Pay attention to the direction of work and prevent people from inhaling pesticides to cause poisoning. When the boom sprayer is operated, it is necessary to adjust the consistency of the nozzle, the spray amount, and the spraying direction to control the amount of spraying.

(2) When spraying, the speed of walking should be uniform, and it should not be quick and easy to prevent the heavy spray from leaking and spray evenly. The walking route should be based on the direction of the wind, and should be perpendicular to the wind direction or be at an angle not less than 45 degrees. The operator should be in the upwind direction and the spraying components should be in the downwind direction.

(3) In the case of plant protection, for small fields, if the amount of liquid to be applied does not exceed one medicine tank, the liquid can be dispensed directly; if the area of ​​the field is large, the amount of liquid applied exceeds one medicine tank, You can use the kit as a unit to prepare the liquid.

(4) When the liquid in the manual sprayer exceeds the safe water level, the rocker should be immediately stopped to prevent the air chamber from bursting. When the sprayer is operated, the liquid should not exceed the prescribed water level to ensure that there is enough space to store compressed air. In order to make the spray pressure stable and uniform.

(III) Precautions

1. Test meteorological conditions while working. It should be avoided to spray pesticides when rainfall and temperatures exceed 32°C, so as to avoid phytotoxicity and poisoning of people and animals. At the same time, spraying on windy days should be avoided to prevent other crops from being damaged by herbicides and other drifts.

2. After the maintenance of equipment operations. After the end of daily use, pour out the remaining liquid in the barrel, add a small amount of clean water to continue spraying, and clean the parts with clean water, and then open the switch and store in a ventilated and dry place. When tools are stored for a long period of time, the equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and the accumulated water in the pumps and pipes should be strictly removed to prevent freezing of parts in winter. All movable parts and non-plastic joints should be coated with butter and rust.

3. Residual solution. After the application of pesticides, it is necessary to properly handle the residual drug solution and thoroughly clean the application devices to prevent contamination of water sources and farmland. After spraying the herbicide, the sprayer must be thoroughly cleaned so as not to cause phytotoxicity to the crop when spraying other pesticides; the residual liquid for spraying the pesticide should be stored in a special container for safe storage and taken back; the effluent of the cleaning device should be selected in a safe place in the field. The treatment must not be brought back to the living area, nor be spilled anywhere to prevent pollution of the environment.

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