Grasping the Optimum Breeding Stage and Effectively Increasing Breeding Efficiency


Modern pig production requires balanced breeding of breeding pigs throughout the year to ensure that hogs are marketed in batches and meet market demand all year round in order to achieve sustainable and stable economic benefits. Therefore, in the use of breeding pigs, we must grasp In the best breeding stage, strength utilization is carried out in the appropriate breeding stage. When the reproductive performance is declining, it should be eliminated in time so as to effectively reduce the production cost.

Utilization of 1 boar

1.1 Appropriate age

After the breeding of young pigs began breeding, breeding performance continued to increase. When it reached 2 to 3 years old, it was the period with the highest fertility. Later, with the growth of age, sexual function gradually declined until sexual failure. In general, young boars (1 to 3 years old) have a strong sex drive, rapid sexual reflexes, and good semen quality, and have a high conception rate for sows. At the same time, boars of this age are physically flexible, limbs strong, and limbs. Less hoof disease. Older boars have poor libido, slow sexual reflexes, significant weight and bulk (up to 350-400 kilograms for large breeds), inflexible extremities, often accompanied by light or severe limb and foot disease, and poor ability to breed. Therefore, boars are generally used for only 2 to 3 years. For boars longer than 3 years, unless the constitution is particularly good and the fertility rate of mating is particularly high, they should be eliminated in time.

1.2 Appropriate use frequency

When adopting the seasonal centralized breeding management mode, an adult boar can usually be bred 1 or 2 times a day, but a rest period of at least 1 day should be guaranteed every week; young boars should be bred once a day, after 3 days of continuous breeding. Rest 1 to 2 days; older boars can be bred twice a day and rest for 1 day after 3 days of continuous breeding. The following frequencies can be used for large-scale pig farms: boars of 8-12 months of age, 2 breeding times per week during natural mating, 1 sperm per week during artificial insemination, boars over 12 months of age, natural At the time of mating, breeding is performed 3 times per week. When artificial insemination is performed, sperm is collected once every 5 days.

1.3 Suitable semen quality

No matter what kind of breeding method is used, the qualified farms must always check the quality of semen. The sperm viability should be above 0.8 and the density should be above average. The rate of malformed sperm should not exceed 10%. The normal semen color is milky white or off-white, with a slight odor and no other colors or abnormal odors. There must be a half-month trial training before the reserve boars are bred, and at least 2 semen should be checked. Semens can't participate in breeding if they fail to meet the requirements.

Use of 2 sows

2.1 Suitable breeding age

Practice has proved that the mortality rate of sow embryos born and pregnant more than five times is higher. Young sows (1 to 6 children) have obvious estrus symptoms, high conception rate, and a high number of litter-bearing piglets. The piglets have strong viability, rapid growth and development, and the sows have high continuance of sex and strong nurturing ability. Old pigs have the obvious drawback of reduced fertility. Although the number of litters may not be small, the lactation ability is poor, and individuals with small or no milk are often present. They are physically bulky, have slow motion, and are prone to deafness. Problems such as leg problems can easily lead to accidental death of piglets, and the elderly sows have loose abdominal muscles. When breastfeeding on the side, 2 to 3 nipples in the lower row are difficult to expose. If necessary assistance is not given, the effect will be affected. Normal nursing, newborn piglets are often frozen to death. In addition, the offspring of older breeder pigs have poor viability, slow growth, and often have bad individuals due to genetic mutations. According to modern management requirements, sows are generally used in 5-6 births, and individuals with excellent reproductive performance can use 7-8 births.

2.2 Appropriate body weight

The gilts are weighed regularly to ensure proper body weight. For the introduction of pig breeds, large breeds and late-maturing breeds, the body weight should reach about 90 kg at the age of 6 months, and the body weight should reach 120 to 130 kg at the age of 8 months of breeding. For local breeds, small breeds and early maturing varieties, it is generally about 6 months old, and when the body weight reaches 50-60 kilograms, it is appropriate for the first time. If the sow is overweight, it may cause reproductive problems or too little calving. If the sow is too small, it will affect the lactation ability and its normal development after farrowing. Breeding practice has also proved that sows with larger body weight (150 kg) have lower conception rates and severe embryo deaths, while the lighter weight sows (120 kg) have not only low embryo mortality but also lactation weight. The loss is also small and there are no diseases such as postpartum paralysis.

2.3 Suitable breeding time

Studies have shown that within 6 hours after ovulation and 14 hours after ovulation, embryo survival rates were 88% and 32%, respectively. The sows generally ovulate 24 to 36 hours after estrus. The peak period is about 31 hours. The time for the eggs to maintain fertilization in the body is 8 to 12 hours. The sperm can live in the sow for 10 to 20 hours and reach the site of fertilization. The time is 2 to 3 hours. Timely mating ensures that the sperm and egg are combined in the strongest vitality to ensure that the discharged eggs are fully fertilized to form embryos. Fertility will be affected by premature and late mating. Even if fertilized, the fertilized eggs will not be very strong. Easy to die. Using this method, the appropriate breeding time is the first time the sow has estrus performance 24 hours after the first allocation, 10 to 12 hours interval compounded. For artificial insemination, 2 inseminations can be used. The first insemination is performed 12 hours after the sow is in constant estrus, and the second insemination is performed 10 to 12 hours after the first. In actual production, the appropriate timing should be flexibly selected according to the age and breed of the sow. The common law is: "the old match is early, the match is late, and the old is not small with the middle", "cultivated varieties should be equipped early, local varieties should be In late evening, the hybrids are in the middle." Specific time control, the best breeding time of old sows is within 24 hours after the onset of estrus, the latest can not exceed 37 hours, young sows were 36 hours and 60 hours, middle-aged sows were 30 hours And 48 hours.

2.4 Suitable breeding methods

The way of mating is an important part of determining the number of litters. The results of the study showed that the number of litters raised by the two breedings was higher than that of the one-time breeding, but there was no difference with the breeding of more than three times. Common breeding methods include single breeding and repeated breeding (sows use one boar for two breedings in one love period, interval of 8 to 12 hours) and double breeding (sows use two boars during a love period). Once in each breeding period (15 to 30 minutes apart), multiple breedings can also be performed (sows are used for multiple breeding times with multiple boars at intervals of 8 to 12 hours), but as long as 2 breedings can be carried out smoothly, It is not advisable to use multiple breeding methods. Farmers can choose suitable methods according to conditions and needs to achieve the purpose of increasing litter size. In order to improve the utilization rate of excellent male boars and also to reduce the cost of breeding, artificial insemination should be actively promoted, but gilts are not to be artificially inseminated, and it is better to use this as a means of communication. Boars and sows must not be too different physically. Boars are slightly larger than sows.

2.5 Suitable weaning time

In order to increase the utilization rate of sows, pig farms with suitable conservation conditions should adopt the method of early weaning and choose to wean at 28-30 days so as to ensure that one sow can produce 2~2.5 litters a year, as compared with traditional methods. In comparison, this utilization system can improve the efficiency of breeding and save feed costs. Sows that have implemented early weaning systems generally have estrus in 5-7 days after weaning, and the conception rate is between 90% and 95%.

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