Soybean breeding method


Soybeans are self-pollination crops, which often result in deterioration of the species because of mechanical intermixing, poor climatic conditions and cultivation conditions, and natural hybridization. Therefore, self-seeding seeds cannot be used for a long time. Seeds should be changed every three years. Therefore, we must persist in purifying rejuvenation and do a good job of breeding and breeding varieties in order to maintain the quality of good varieties.
Methods for purification and rejuvenation of soybean varieties The common method for selection and purification of soybean is the three-step selection of single plant selection, strain identification, and hybrid high-reproduction. Separate plant nursery, plant nursery, and mixed plant nursery.
Single plant selection nursery selected typical excellent plants for test species, single plant threshing. Eliminate single plants that are inconsistent with the characteristics of grain color, grain shape, and umbilical color of the original variety.
The strain identification nursery will form one line for each single plant (strain). Elimination of strains that are inconsistent with the original variety. Planting design can be used every 10 to 20 lines of 1 control line (original species) way. Selected strains for breeding in the next year.
In the mixed propagation garden, the above-mentioned identifications of the strains and the mixed harvested seeds are planted at equal distances and then sown in high magnification.
The seeds produced by the above 3 nurseries are referred to as super purified rejuvenation stocks.
Mixed soybean selection When the soybean is mature, select a certain number of robust and good individuals with the typical characteristics of the variety, and then strictly check the indoor, mixed threshing, and save separately, as the breeding seed for the next year. The breeding field adopts advanced cultivation and management measures and strictly eliminates impurities.
One strain was selected as a single plant with the typical traits of the original cultivar, and their offspring were finely bred and propagated. This method expands the breeding of single-line harvested seeds, which is slightly longer than the strain selection method.
The establishment of seed super-seeds for rejuvenation by seed field remediation has resulted in the establishment of seed plots and the proliferation of production seeds due to the small amount of seeds.
The size of the seed field is determined by the number of seeds sown and the yield per acre. Generally, the area of ​​the seed field can be 4% to 5% of the area of ​​the production field or the seed field at the next higher level. For the selection of plots in the seed field, land plots with flat terrain, well-drained water, uniform soil, and no heavy land or land should be used. Fertilizers were added to the farmyard and fertilizers were applied according to the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus. Strengthen field management, and time seedlings, timely cultivating, weeding, soil cultivation, so that the soil is loose and weed free. During flowering and graining, top dressing is applied 1 or 2 times, and water is sprayed timely during drought to prevent and control pests and diseases. During the entire period of childbearing, according to the morphological traits, the seedling, flowering and maturity stages are strictly eliminated. After maturity, timely harvesting, strict grasp of harvest, threshing, etc. can easily lead to several aspects of mechanical mixing.

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