There is a new way to add "gas" to the greenhouse


Abstract: As we all know, carbon dioxide gas is an important element of photosynthesis in crops. The shortage of carbon dioxide will directly affect the normal photosynthesis of vegetables. Therefore, carbon dioxide gas application technology is an important technical measure to achieve high yield, high quality, and disease resistance of vegetables. “Jin Ling Shuang” brand bag-type carbon dioxide gas generating agent is the most advanced and effective new-generation product that replaces the other carbon dioxide application technologies in the current protection field, and is generally welcomed by agricultural experts, scientific and technical personnel, and a large number of growers.

I. Carbon dioxide gas supplement in greenhouse planting environment is a necessary technical measure

As we all know, carbon dioxide gas is an important element of crop photosynthesis, and insufficient supply of carbon dioxide will directly affect the normal photosynthesis of vegetables, resulting in reduced yields and crop yields. It plays an equal role in crop growth and development as water and fertilizer. Greenhouses are generally used for the production of vegetables, fruits and flowers in the cold season. In order to maintain a certain temperature in greenhouses, greenhouses are usually closed. As a result, the concentration of carbon dioxide in greenhouses is bound to become lower and lower. Photosynthesis in crops in greenhouses is very slow, and photosynthesis may sometimes stop. Many countries attach great importance to the artificial supplementation of carbon dioxide gas in greenhouse cultivation, call carbon dioxide gas “gas fertilizer”, and artificially supplement carbon dioxide gas. It is an important measure to increase crop yields in the cultivation of solar greenhouses. Therefore, the carbon dioxide gas application technology in the greenhouse cultivation is an important technical measure to achieve high yield, high quality, and disease resistance of vegetables.

In the late 1970s, developed countries have popularized and promoted devices and methods for the addition of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers, and their use efficiency is very good. In China, the application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers has been promoted for nearly 10 years, but carbon dioxide gas fertilizers have been added to production belts. The effect of the increase in production is not satisfactory. How did this difference form in the end? What is the reason for the poor effect of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer in greenhouses in China? These problems are all problems that must be solved in the current promotion of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer application technology.
On the basis of summarizing the promotion experience of the past 10 years, we analyzed and summarized the main factors affecting the effect of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer application, and identified the most important factors and improvement methods. The following is a summary of these factors and measures. The simple introduction, as a popularization of standardized technical measures for the rational use of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers, will also promote the theories that promote plant growth in greenhouse cultivation to the agricultural science and technology workers and green plant food producers as soon as possible. The best carbon dioxide gas application technology has been introduced to the country.

Second, the basic rules of changes in carbon dioxide concentration in greenhouse cultivation environment in China

The general rule of daily change of carbon dioxide concentration in greenhouses is: at night, due to the respiration of crops, soil microbial activity and decomposition of organic matter, the generated carbon dioxide increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in greenhouses, which is comparable to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air outside the greenhouse. Times, but after sunrise in the morning, crop photosynthetic use increased, and the carbon dioxide accumulated in the shed at night was drastically consumed, causing its concentration to drop sharply. One hour after sunrise, the carbon dioxide concentration dropped to 300PPM (about 360PPM in air). After 2-3 hours after sunrise, if there is no ventilation, the concentration will continue to drop, even down to the crop's CO2 compensation point of 80-150PPM. At this time, the photosynthesis of the leaves is basically stopped due to the low concentration of carbon dioxide. Therefore, from the half hour after sunrise to the period of ventilation, the lack of carbon dioxide has become an important obstacle to crop growth. During this time, it is necessary to artificially increase carbon dioxide to supplement the shortage of gas in the shed. The rational application of this method can promote the production of greenhouse crops, which is also a must The basic principle of carbon dioxide gas must be added.

III. Comparison of the symptoms of carbon dioxide gas abundance and deficiency in greenhouses

Carbon dioxide is one of the main raw materials needed for photosynthesis of plants. The carbon dioxide in the natural atmosphere can meet the normal growth needs of plants, but in a closed greenhouse, the concentration of carbon dioxide is low, and it can not meet the photosynthesis requirements of plants. At the same time, due to the lack of carbon dioxide, the photosynthesis of plants is slow, resulting in low plant resistance to diseases and insect pests, reduced yield, reduced quality, and extended production cycle.

Sufficient CO2 concentration:

The plants with sufficient CO2 have strong growth, high chlorophyll content, and dark green leaves.

The vegetables with adequate CO2 bloom early, there are more female flowers, and fewer flowers fall.

Adequate vegetables in CO2, young and tender, strong on branches and leaves;

The fruits and vegetables with sufficient CO2 are upright, listed early, and have high yields.

The lack of carbon dioxide concentration:

In the absence of CO2 vegetables, the leaves are dark and dull, and the plants grow poorly;

In the absence of CO2, the vegetables bloomed late, there were fewer female flowers, and there were many shedding of flowers and flowers.

The leaves lacking CO2 are flat and vertical or drooping with the main branches, and the foliage is uneven;

The lack of CO2 vegetables, a variety of shaped fruit, listed 2 to 3 days late, low yield, high quality fruit less.

High carbon dioxide symptoms:

Vegetables with high CO2 concentration often cause leaf curling in the vegetable crops. The chlorophyll in the leaf cells within the cells is seriously deformed due to excessive starch accumulation, affecting the normal photosynthesis.

Severe emergence of withering and simultaneous decrease of ash, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the leaves may induce corresponding nutrient deficiency.

The vegetables with high CO2 concentration will affect the oxygen absorption of the crops, they can not perform normal respiratory metabolism and affect the normal growth and development, and promote the aging process;

The indoor air in the shed has a high CO2 concentration. If the ventilation is not done in time, the temperature in the shed will increase rapidly, causing high temperature damage to the vegetable crops.

Fourth, China's existing carbon dioxide gas fertilizer application technology

The existing carbon dioxide production technology in China can be summarized as follows:

1. High-pressure liquid carbon dioxide gas fertilizer: that is, CO2 compression is controlled and used in high-pressure cylinders. The disadvantage is inconvenient transportation.

2. Solid dry ice: The low-temperature high-pressure carbon dioxide processed into dry ice, dry ice high cost should not be widely promoted.

3. Solid particle gas fertilizer: It is a kind of granular or cylindrical particles. When used, the particles are buried evenly between the rows of the crop. The surface is covered with 2 cm. The disadvantage is that the proportion of carbon dioxide is greater than air, which is not conducive to the photosynthesis of plants.

4. Combustion method: In the greenhouse ignited charcoal combustion, produce carbon dioxide and also produce a large amount of carbon monoxide, so must install gas purification devices.

5. Ammonium bicarbonate deep method: apply ammonium bicarbonate deep application 5 ~ 8 cm, when using ammonia should be careful to harm the greenhouse crop.

6. Chemical reaction method: The use of ammonium bicarbonate reacts with sulfuric acid to produce carbon dioxide, which is cumbersome to use, and great care must be taken to avoid sulfuric acid burns or burn out of clothing items.

7. Gas and fertilizer sticks: A mixture processed into a flammable rod type product that is ignited in greenhouse sheds and releases carbon dioxide every day. The disadvantage is that the humidity in the greenhouse is not easy to burn.

8. Carbon dioxide gas fertilizer machine: A carbon dioxide gas generator is installed in a greenhouse, and the generator generates carbon dioxide gas by electrolysis. In the use, electricity and water must be used, and chemical materials are added at any time, which is cumbersome and inconvenient.

In order to solve the problem of adding carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, many measures have been taken at home and abroad, but these measures have mostly constrained the development of this technology because of expensive equipment, complicated gas sources, or inconvenient use or inconvenient use. It is not too costly for a large number of farmers in our country to be restricted by various conditions. It does not conform to the current national conditions of China's agriculture, according to the characteristics of China's greenhouse agriculture and the repeated comparison of many carbon dioxide gas sources in recent years. According to the analysis, these above-mentioned ways of increasing the application of the above-mentioned methods all have deficiencies to varying degrees, and they are not suitable for the current status of the rural areas in China. Therefore, it has been difficult to promote these applications.

Fifth, the main factors affecting the effect of CO2 gas fertilizer application

Carbon dioxide is the raw material for photosynthesis of plants. Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment can increase the yield of plants and the sugar content of the products. However, increasing the carbon dioxide concentration in the environment to achieve high yields is often constrained by many factors in the environment. For example, people often know the light intensity, soil moisture content, temperature and other factors, in addition there are some influencing factors are unknown or little known, it is precisely these factors determine the effect of adding carbon dioxide gas fertilizer is good or bad, our Scientific and technical personnel and technology extension personnel must establish clear data concepts, clarify the factors of temperature, light, fertilizer, water, and gas in the actual environment of planted species, and identify whether carbon dioxide is indeed lacking, so as to scientifically use carbon dioxide gas fertilizers to increase their application. Technology and equipment.

1. Determine whether you need to add carbon dioxide gas fertilizer limit

Judging whether or not the effect of increasing the application of carbon dioxide and gas fertilizers on various types of vegetables is generally adopted the comprehensive limit value of the limit of increase of production by 15%. Most of the greenhouses in China use organic fertilizers for cultivation. The carbon dioxide gas content in greenhouses is generally higher, as long as a small amount is applied. The need for plant photosynthesis can be met. If a large number of gas fertilizers are added in accordance with the usual techniques at this time, severe gas damage will occur and affect the yield. At this time, large amounts of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer will have no significant effect, and foreign greenhouses Vegetable production is mostly conducted using soilless cultivation methods, so the effect of adding carbon dioxide gas fertilizer will be very good.
Here is a simple judgment method: 4m3/667 m2 of pig manure per year; 6m3/667 m2 of chicken manure per year; 7m3/667 m2 of soybean cake per year can basically do not need to increase carbon dioxide gas fertilizer. On the contrary, it is necessary to add carbon dioxide gas fertilizer.

2. Influence of ground temperature on the use of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer

Under normal greenhouse conditions, ground temperature is a very important environmental factor affecting the effect of adding carbon dioxide gas fertilizer. Under the condition of sufficient moisture and sunshine, the temperature of the ground temperature is in the range of 15 to 23 °C, and the content of carbohydrates will increase by 4% for each additional 1 °C. Therefore, the control of the ground temperature can increase the production capacity of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers. For common fruit and vegetable vegetables and leafy vegetables, the temperature of plants that can significantly affect the absorption of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers is approximately 15 °C. In the greenhouse in the north, most of the suitable temperature for vegetable growth is 18-22 °C, which is lower than 15 °C. Especially when the ground temperature is lower than 12 °C, the application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer is almost ineffective, so only the ground temperature in the greenhouse can be increased. Only by obtaining sufficient mineral fertilizers from the soil and obtaining high yields can the production capacity of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers be increased.

3. Misconception Effect on the Use of Carbon Dioxide Gas Fertilizer

Under normal circumstances, a large number of growers mistakenly believe that since the application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer is effective, that is, the more the better, or that the increase in gas fertilizer can reduce the release of other fertilizers, or add in the time of planting seedlings. Gas fat, but not added later, or think that sunny can not add gas, only in cloudy days need carbon dioxide; some people think that only solanaceous vegetables need gas fertilizer, and leaf vegetables do not need The wrong ideas, etc., are misconceptions. This misconception leads to wrong use of the method, which in turn leads to skepticism about this carbon dioxide application technique.
In short, in the cultivation of vegetable facilities, rational application of carbon dioxide can promote plant growth and development, to increase production and income purposes, but the specific application should consider the growth of the plant itself, as well as light, temperature and other environmental factors.

Sixth, must pay attention to the problem of reasonable application of carbon dioxide fertilizer

When greenhouses are planted, carbon dioxide can be released at night due to crop respiration, and the concentration is higher than the outside world. However, due to rapid photosynthesis of plants after sunrise, the carbon dioxide concentration will be reduced from 450 ppm to 85 ppm, and most of the vegetable crops grow and yield The cost-effective carbon dioxide concentration is 600-1000ppm. The lack of concentration is not conducive to photosynthesis of plants. Proper ventilation can increase the carbon dioxide concentration in the shed, but it still can not meet the needs, so it is necessary to increase the gas fertilizer, but in the increase of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer When the application concentration and the crop species, varieties and light intensity, temperature level, and even fertilizer and water have a great relationship, we must pay attention to the following points:

1. When planting melon and fruit crops on soils with high fertility, they are mostly applied after planting and replanting, or at flowering, until the end of the harvest, and they must not be stopped halfway.

2. Seedling stage is a period with better effect of gas fertilizer application, which is conducive to cultivating strong seedlings, shortening seedling age, accelerating seedling development, and promoting flower bud differentiation of fruits and vegetables earlier, which is very obvious for improving early yield.

3. The demand for carbon dioxide in leafy vegetables is greater than that in fruit and vegetables. Leafy vegetables generally start to use carbon dioxide when they are planted and emerged. To use them continuously, they usually use gas fertilizers for 7-10 days continuously to see the effect of adding gas fertilizers.

4. For fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumbers, long melons and other fruit crops from the colonization to flowering can be less applied fertilizer, proper control of vegetative growth, strengthen the pruning leaves, flowers and fruits, in the flowering period to the fruit expansion period using carbon dioxide The best effect of gas fertilizer can accelerate the process of fruit enlargement and maturation, reduce the occurrence of teratogenic fruit, and improve the early yield and the commercial nature of vegetables. Generally, the effect is obvious after 10 to 20 days.

5. The application of carbon dioxide within the facility requires a good confinement of the facility structure. If the ground temperature or the temperature in the greenhouse is too low, the effect of adding gas fertilizer is not significant, and this can be suspended.

6. The addition of gas fertilizer basically does not change the original field management method, but due to the vigorous growth of crops after the addition of gas fertilizer, the amount of water and fertilizer should also be appropriately increased, but excessive water and fertilizers should be avoided to cause leggy and phosphorus should be increased. Potassium fertilizer, proper control of nitrogen fertilizer.

7. Appropriate concentration of carbon dioxide is considered to be in order to increase production, but also reduce costs, but also to prevent the high concentration of carbon dioxide on crops, the concentration should be controlled below the crop saturation point, generally not more than 1000PPM is better.

8. Every day, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted should be flexibly controlled, and sunny days should be adequately applied. Cloudy weather can be reduced by 20-30%. On cloudy days, it can generally be reduced by 50% compared to sunny days. Rain and snow days can be maintained.

9. The continuous application is better than the intermittent or hourly use, stop time increase production effect, the greenhouse does not release the wind during the deep winter, the time for topdressing carbon dioxide should not be interrupted, so in addition to rain and snow, it should be used without continuous termination of gas fertilizer.

10. The use of organic substances fermentation method can release some of the harmful gases, should be properly prevented from excessive formation of harmful gas poisoning poisoning, should pay attention to the cultivation of management measures.

7. There is a new method for adding “gas” to the greenhouse

Adding “gas fertilizer” to greenhouses means artificially increasing the carbon dioxide concentration in the plant's growing environment. Photosynthesis of plants is carried out by carbon dioxide in the surrounding air. Therefore, the level of carbon dioxide directly affects the growth and development of plants. In China, due to limitations in the use of various carbon dioxide generators, it has not been widely used. Currently, Beijing Jinling Shuang Environmental Protection Equipment Co., Ltd. launched a new type of bag-type carbon dioxide gas generating agent for greenhouses and other greenhouses. A growth promoter used for planting vegetables, fruits, and flowers in protected areas. The implementation of this technology can solve the problem of shortage of carbon dioxide in the protected areas of vegetables, and at the same time effectively avoid the possibility of other forms of manual operation of carbon dioxide gas fertilizers. The new type of bag-type carbon dioxide gas fertilizer adopts the effect of temperature and light. Under a certain temperature and light conditions, it can release carbon dioxide and dissolve organic fertilizer. It can be suspended within 25 to 30 days. More evenly produced carbon dioxide gas, the highest concentration of up to 1 Around 000PPM, to meet the needs of different crops in different growth stages of carbon dioxide, can effectively guarantee the natural and normal growth of crops, it can greatly increase the economic benefits and social benefits of vegetable farmers, according to the relevant test and production practices to prove: (see test Report Forms I and II
Table 1 Processing Output Total Production Average Production Increase %
1 1395 1459.2 1422 4276.2 1425 ----
2 1698 1752 1645.2 5095.2 1698 19.2
3 1741.8 1774.8 1771.8 5288.4 1763 23.7

Excerpt from field trial report of "carbonic acid gas fertilizer" in tomato greenhouse application in soil and fertilizer station of Beijing Municipal Bureau of Agriculture

Table 2 Statistics of the production of strawberry in Xingtun Town, Xiangtun County. Processing of Strawberry Yield Increased Production Increase Yield Increase Income Application 837.5kg 129.1kg 18.2% 2840 Control 708.4kg ~~ ~~ ~~

Note: The statistics of cucumber production at the home base of the Finance and Accounting Department for the release of 60 days of gas per shed area is 0.5 mu.

Cucumber production increase yield increase yield increase application of 1725kg 335kg 24.1% 928 yuan control 1390kg ~~ ~~ ~~

Note: 0.56 mu per shed area, release of gas fertilizer for 40 days, starting on November 22.
The production of celery production at the Jinliuhuan vegetable base dealt with increasing the yield of celery, increasing the yield, and increasing yields. Application of 1952kg 295kg 18.1% 225 yuan control 1630kg ~~ ~~ ~~

Note: The area per hectare of 0.5 mu, the release of gas fertilizer for 60 days Xingshou Zhenxiang strawberry single fruit weight, determination of the statistical table processing average fruit weight average sugar application of 41.1g 8.2 degrees control 38.7g 7.1

Note: The single fruit weight increased by 6.2%; the sugar content increased by 1.1 degrees.

Taken from the demonstration report of a new type of bag-type carbon dioxide gas fertilizer at the soil and fertilizer station in Changping District, Beijing

The use of a new type of bag-type carbon dioxide generator in greenhouses is an effective way to increase crop yields in greenhouses. The average yield of vegetables can reach 18-30%. A new type of bag-type carbon dioxide generator has been experimentally implemented in the project area for the past two years. Cumulative promotion of CO2 gas fertilizer application area of ​​8700 mu, an increase of 25%, effectively increasing the scientific and technological content of the production of vegetable protective ground, "Jin Ling Shuang" carbon dioxide gas generating agent bag asked the city, to the vast greenhouse The growers brought the gospel and provided a feasible technical means for the realization of pollution-free green agriculture. They are the most advanced and effective new-generation products that replace the other carbon dioxide application technologies in the current protected area, and thus they are relevant to agricultural experts. , scientific and technical personnel and the majority of growers are generally welcome.

"Jin Ling Shuang" carry bag carbon dioxide gas fertilizer is characterized by:

Do not need any external conditions such as water and electricity. Just pour nano-catalytic slow release agent (pouch) into carbon dioxide generator (big bag), simply hang it 50 centimeters above the plant, and hang 20 bags per mu of greenhouse. , Carbon dioxide gas can be automatically generated during the daytime in the sunlight, there is little or no carbon dioxide gas at night without sunlight, so it can be used for a period of one month before it needs to be replaced, generally valid for 30 days, when used, for leafy vegetables Varieties are generally used after suspension of planting and seedlings, and fruit and fruit varieties are better suspended before flowering. Other varieties are used at the right time after 2-3 weeks. It has low cost of use, easy operation, safety and convenience, resistance to disease and disease, non-toxicity, harmlessness, low application amount, large gas production, no damage to crops under any conditions, no environmental pollution, and increased yield. Significant features are clearly superior to other carbon dioxide application techniques.

The promotion and application of the new type of bag-type carbon dioxide generator has successfully created a precedent for the application of carbon dioxide application technology in greenhouses. The availability of this product has made it possible to popularize this application technology in China, and is to ensure the sustainability of green agriculture. The development of effective measures, at the same time, has made outstanding contributions to the development of China's industrialization of facility agriculture and increased farmers' income. With the wider application of new type of bag-type carbon dioxide generators, the development of green agriculture in greenhouses and a new level of agricultural production have been promoted. It has very important practical significance.

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