Harmless Chinese Tortoise: Technical Specifications for Seed Breeding


1 Scope This section provides the terms and definitions for the breeding of unspoiled Chinese tortoise seedlings, environmental requirements, facilities, introgression breeding, breeding management, disease control, artificial reproduction, hatchlings and other techniques.
This section applies to the production of pollution-free Chinese tortoise seedlings.

2 Normative references The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this section, constitute provisions of this section. For dated references, subsequent amendments (not including errata content) or revisions do not apply to this section, however, encourage the parties to reach an agreement in accordance with this section to study whether the latest version of these documents can be used . For undated references, the latest version applies to this section.
GB 11607 Fishery Water Quality Standard
GB/T 18407.4 Agricultural product safety and quality Environmental requirements for the production environment of pollution-free aquatic products
NY 5051 Non-polluted Food Freshwater Aquaculture Water Quality
NY/T 5067 pollution-free food Chinese sturgeon breeding technical specifications
NY 5071 Guidelines for the Use of Non-Hazardous Food and Fishery Drugs
NY 5072 Non-environmentally Harsh Food & Fish Compound Feed Safety Limit

3 Terms and Definitions The following terms and definitions apply to this section.
The juvenile turtle just hatched from the egg until the yolk sac completely disappeared, and the Chinese tortoise had not yet eaten.
After 24 hours of fertilized egg production, a ring of white rings with clear edges and translucent areas appeared in the central part of the egg shell.

4 Environmental requirements
4.1 The environment shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 18407.4.
4.2 Water Quality Water source water quality shall meet the requirements of GB 11607, and the quality of production water shall comply with the provisions of NY 5051.

5 facilities
5.1 The pond requires that the incubating pond is a rectangular outdoor pond with a single pond area of ​​1000 m2 to 1300 m2, a pool depth of 2.0 m, a water depth of 1.5 m to 1.8 m, a slope ratio of 1:3, and a slope of 0.5 m around the bank. 1 m wide open space for turtle activities. In the pool, there are 6 to 8 counterbasins per 1,000 square meters, each of which is 3 to 5 m2. Several feed stations are provided. The feed counter is inclined to 15o to 30o above the water surface, and the top half is 20 cm above the water surface. In the pond, planting water plants and grasses account for 20% to 25% of the total surface area.
5.2 Anti-escape equipment uses aluminum, PVC board, cement board, brick wall and other materials to block around. The material of the fence requires a smooth surface and the fence is firm, 0.4 m above the ground and 0.1 m above the ground. And install anti-escape metal mesh in the inlet and outlet of the pool.
5.3 Spawning facilities set up spawning grounds on the shore of ponds. The spawning grounds are 50 cm above the surface of the pond, generally 1 m to 2 m wide, and 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the pool side (or the number of female turtles). Calculated, each female turtle 0.03 ~ 0.04?), laying sand within the spawning ground, sediment concentration of about 50%, total thickness of 30 cm ~ 40, sand particle size 0.5 mm ~ 0.6 mm, and sand in the spawning ground The dwarf shrubs were planted in a medium distance of 1.5 m, and a rain (yang) shed was set up on the spawning ground. Drainage was good and no water accumulated.

6 Inbreeding Breeding
6.1 Intimate tortoises Male and female turtles should be selected from the wild or artificially selected non-inbred mating, normal-temperature breeding of sexually mature Chinese tortoises, morphology should be consistent with the classification characteristics of Chinese tortoises, the appearance requirements of lively and robust, complete body shape, no disability, No deformity, normal body color, body surface brightness, skin without horned scutellum fall off, neck and neck flex freely, 5 years of age above the wild, artificial incubation at room temperature more than 4 years of age. Male and female gender characteristics are obvious.

Gender characteristics The female turtle has a short tail, a thick caudal peduncle, a short and thick trunk, a brown back carapace, and a weight requirement of 500 g or more.
The male has a long tail with a fine caudal shank, a long and thin trunk, and a black back carapace, which has an offensive odor and weighs more than 200 g.

6.2 Transport plastic boxes (size 60 40 40 30 30 )) are shipped. There are vent holes in the bottom and periphery of the box. When shipping, first place 2 厚 thick sponge on the bottom of the box and pour water to keep the sponge wet. Then press the turtle body. Sizes are divided, one for each turtle, and then covered with a moist sponge. That is, it can be transported using a suitable transportation means.
6.3 sex ratio with male to female ratio (3 ~ 4): 1.
6.4 stocking density of 1 / m2 ~ 2 / m2 is appropriate.
6.5 turtles stocking
6.5.1 Pre-stocking turtles must be cleaned and disinfected before stocking. First drain the pool water to remove debris and excess silt at the bottom of the pool. Let the bottom of the pool dry for 3 days to 5 days, then fill in 5 to 10 feet of water. Use quicklime 75 kg to 100 kg or bleach 15 kg per 667 m2. The whole pool of mash is evenly spilled, and the mud is smashed with shovels. After a week of new water injection of 1.5 m, turtles can be stocked.
6.5.2 The stocked turtles must be sterilized before stocking. They can be soaked in 20 mg/L potassium permanganate solution for 3 min to 5 min or bathed in 3% saline for 10 min, and then affixed to the water for free travel. In the water.

7 Cultivation Management
7.1 Feed Types Turtle feeds include animal feeds, plant feeds and special compound feeds. Such as fresh fish, shrimp, snails, oysters, clams, livestock and poultry viscera and pumpkin, watermelon rind, vegetables, carrots and so on.
7.2 Feed Quality Live feeds and compound feeds require no mildew, no spoilage, no pollution; plant feeds require fresh, no drug residues; safety limits for compound feeds should comply with NY 5072; crude protein content should not be less than 38% , Fat content 3% to 6%.
7.3 Feeding
7.3.1 Feeds fed with quality should be fresh, palatable, and nutritious. Animal feeds and plant feeds are rinsed with fresh water before feeding, and the ratio is generally 7:3 to 8:2. The ratio of feeding of fresh live animal feed should be increased before spawning.
7.3.2 The daily amount of quantitative fresh feed should be 5% to 10% of the body weight of the probiotics and 0.8% to 1.5% of the compound feed. The specific dosage should be adjusted in time according to the water temperature, weather conditions and the ingestion intensity of the probiotics. General fed feeds should be eaten within 2 hours.
7.3.3 The timed water temperature rises to 15°C, starts feeding and attracting food, and uses fresh high-quality bait to attract food every 3 days. When the water temperature is 18°C ​​to 20°C, it is fed once every two days; when the water temperature is 20°C~25°C, Feed it once a day at around 10:00 am; water temperature above 25°C, feed once every day before 9 o'clock in the morning and after 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 7.3.4 Fixed feed is placed on the feed table 1 cm to 5 cm above the water surface. Formulated feed should be made into pellets, fresh live bait should be minced or beaten and then mixed into compound feed and then made into pellets.
7.4 Water Quality Management Water quality shall be adjusted by changing the water or adding water so that the transparency of the pool water is stable at 25 to 30 cm. The lime water is splashed according to the pH condition of the pool water, and the pH of the pool water is adjusted to 7 to 8 and the whole pond is periodically splashed with micro-ecological preparations to improve. Water quality. The water level is controlled at 0.8 m in spring and 1.5 m in summer and in winter. In summer, the water quality and water temperature are considered as high temperatures, and new water is added in an appropriate amount. In the pre-production, the aquatic plants in the pool should be cultivated. After the production, the original pool water should be completely replaced several times, and all the debris in the pool should be removed to keep the water surface clean.
7.5 Day-to-day management The patrol pool should be conducted twice a day, morning and night, to observe the ingestion of turtles, activities, and changes in water quality; check the pool levees, intake and drainage, and escape prevention facilities, remove the residual bait and dirt in time, and keep turtle ponds clean; measure the water temperature regularly every day. , pH and other water environmental factors, good breeding day.
7.6 Post-harvest spawning The disinfecting of water bodies should be strengthened after spawning ceases, and the whole pool of limed pulp of 20 mg/L to 30 mg/L should be sputtered in a timely manner to keep the water fresh and quiet. At the same time, strengthen the feeding of feed, raise feed rate appropriately, feed as much as possible animal feed containing protein, high fat, increase the nutritional accumulation of the pro-turtle.
7.7 Winter Management
Completely change the water before the end of October, change the water and disinfect it with quick lime of 20 mg/L to 30 mg/L once to keep the depth of water more than 1.5 m during the winter, and keep the bottom of the tank at 20 cm thick; in the cold air, timely Do a good job of preventing cold and freezing. In mid- and late April of the following year, when the temperature of the water rose to 15°C, it was found that the pro-tortoise had ended hibernation, and feeding and feeding should be promptly conducted to accelerate the recovery of the pro-piles.

8 Disease Prevention and Control
8.1 The principle of disease prevention is based on the principle of "giving priority to prevention, combining prevention and control, and comprehensive management."
8.2 Preventive measures The following preventive measures can be taken:
a) Turtle pond completely dredged and disinfected;
b) Reasonably feed quality feeds;
c) Disinfect the body of water, feedstuff, tools, etc. with quicklime, bleach, etc., and disinfect the method according to NY/T 5067;
d) regularly adding beneficial microbiological agents to the spill and feed in the pool;
e) The diseased turtle is found to be isolated in time, and the cause is promptly taken to prevent and control. The method of drug use should be in accordance with NY 5071.

9 Artificial breeding
9.1 Spawning season The spawning season for Chinese tortoises ranges from early June to the end of August.
9.2 Pre-spawning preparations Before spawning, the sand of the spawning ground should be loosened and disinfected to remove weeds, dredge drainage channels, and properly spray water to keep the sandy soil moist. .
9.3 Collection and Selection of Fertilized Eggs Oviposition usually takes place after the appearance of the fertilized spot. Oviposition time is between 6 am and 7 am or 5 pm and 6 pm every day. It is advisable to avoid exposure to the sun and to avoid rain and rain on rainy days. Generally, the spawning grounds are inspected every day. When spawning traces are found, bamboo sticks are used to mark them. After 48 hours, it is possible to distinguish between animals and plants. When picking the eggs, choose a large, shiny egg with obvious spotted fertilization. In the end of the day, you should promptly organize the spawning ground and collect the eggs and fertilized eggs.
9.4 Artificial incubation
9.4.1 Incubation rooms and supporting facilities In-horizontal ditch is set in the incubating room and the hatching shelves are placed. Usually 4 to 5 layers are used to place incubators. The incubator is made of Chinese fir which is good in water absorption and not easily corroded. The size of the incubator is generally 70 cm40 cm10 cm. And install the temperature controller and other supporting electrical equipment.
9.4.2 The inoculum matrix can be used as river sand with a particle size of 0.5 mm to 0.6 mm. After being washed with water, it can be soaked in 1 mg/L trichloroisocyanuric acid solution or 1 g/L bleaching powder solution for 2 h, and dried and reserved. use.
9.4.3 Emission of fertilized eggs The bottom of the incubator is covered with 3 cm of sand. The fertilized eggs are laid flat, the spacing between eggs is 2 cm, and the eggs are covered with 3 cm to 5 cm of sand.
9.4.4 Temperature Control The incubation temperature is generally 28°C~33°C, slightly higher in the early stage and slightly lower in the later stage. The total accumulated temperature in the hatching was controlled between 38000 h°C and 42000 h°C, and the hatching time was controlled between 55 d and 60 d.
9.4.5 Humidity Control The air humidity is generally controlled at 80% to 82%, and the sandy soil moisture content is controlled at 7% to 8%.
9.4.6 Incubation Management During the incubation period, do the following major tasks:
a) Maintain proper incubation room temperature and humidity;
b) Maintain the proper moisture content of the sand in the incubator sand bed to prevent surface compaction;
c) timely removal of mildew or necrotic turtle eggs;
d) Prevent the harm of snake, rat, ant and other predator organisms;
e) Do a daily incubator management day?
f) When hatching is close to seedlings, use loose sand to loosen the topsoil and prepare for seedlings.

10 Juvenile turtle breeding
10.1 Juvenile turtles raise newly hatched juvenile plastrons are soft, should be placed in smooth ceramic or plastic pots with water holding, depth of 1 cm ~ 2 cm, and pay attention to frequent water changes, timely removal of the shedding of the umbilical cord. After 24 hours, absorption of yolk sac was completed. Fish was chopped with fresh-cooked fish and mixed with squid feed. The daily dose accounted for 8% to 10% of the weight of juveniles, divided into 2 to 3 feedings. After 5 d ~ 7 d of raising, they can be sold or placed in a breeding pond for breeding turtles. Before entering the pool, the larvae should be completely removed.
10.2 juvenile turtle quality umbilical cord completely off, umbilical hole closed, individual specifications greater than 4 g, strong physique, activity sensitive, disease-free, no injury.

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