Kinds of greenhouse tomatoes to do "four defenses"


To grow tomatoes in greenhouses during the low temperature season is affected by the small environment and bad weather of the greenhouses. It often causes premature tomato decay, empty fruit, fruit drop, fruit drop, and serious diseases. In this regard, vegetable farmers should pay attention to prevention.

First, prevention and treatment of premature aging

1. Rational rotation. The most effective way to prevent premature senility caused by continuous cropping is to implement non-solana fruit vegetables for more than 3 years of rotation, strive for changes in pods, vary from year to year, and maintain a stable soil structure.

2. Add organic fertilizer. Under the precondition of ensuring the required nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium during the growth of tomatoes, decomposed organic fertilizers, biological bacterial fertilizers, and trace elements such as copper, iron, and zinc are also added to increase soil organic matter and improve soil permeability. Tomato roots create a good environment for growth.

3. Cultivate strong seedlings. The winter seedlings of tomato seedlings are 40 to 50 days old, and the seedlings can be planted at a reasonable time according to the estuary. The seedlings were separated when the tomatoes had 3 true leaves. The spacing was 10 cm and 10 cm.

4. Control leggy. In order to prevent seedlings from growing in length, it is better to adopt physical methods such as increasing the area of ​​the nursery bed, appropriately controlling the watering, increasing the spacing between the seedlings and other measures. When hormones are used to correctly use the concentration, attention should also be paid to the use time. Generally, the best effect is to be used before the four true leaves of the seedlings.

5. Colonization and sugar. When the tomato is planted, sugar is added to the planting hole. The dosage of each hole is 10 to 15 grams, which is not only beneficial to the production of adventitious roots in tomatoes, but also promotes easing of seedlings and prevents premature aging.

Second, prevention of empty fruit

1. Choose a variety. The winter greenhouse tomato can choose those varieties with strong anti-low temperature ability, tight flesh, and medium-sized fruits.

2. Reasonable fertilization. Plant flowering and fruit enlargement period, the appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer to prevent excessive nitrogen fertilizer causes plants to grow. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should also be applied at the same time to promote nutrient transfer to flower and fruit parts and reduce the incidence of empty fruit.

3. Leaf spray fertilizer. Foliar application of 0.3% to 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, to supplement the plant's demand for phosphorus, potassium.

4. Regulate temperature. In the case of a cloudy snow day, when the temperature in the shed is not reduced, the light should be exposed to prevent leggy growth. In the case of continuous cloudy days, warming measures should be taken in the shed to prevent the root system from being damaged due to freezing and affecting the plant's absorption of water. Watering in the greenhouse in the winter should be selected on sunny days, and the water temperature should be controlled above 10°C.

Third, anti-dropping and fruiting

1. Use 2,4-D flowers. 2,4-D can stimulate plant growth at low concentrations and prevent flowering. If the concentration is slightly higher, it can easily cause teratogenicity. The application concentration is 10 to 20 mg/kg, when the temperature is high, the concentration is low, when the temperature is low, the concentration is high, and the red food additive is added as a mark to avoid the repeated malpractice causing malformed fruit. Silk flowers should be opened on the same day as appropriate, too early and late will reduce the treatment effect, small buds should not be handled. It is best to leave flowers in the middle to stay in the middle according to the number of fruit per ear. This ensures that the fruits are in order. When smearing, apply a small amount of 2,4-D solution with a brush to smear the detached layer of the pedicel and prevent it from dripping on young leaves and growing points.

2. Treat with tomato spirit. The tomato spirit can be used for flowering and can be sprayed directly, so it is not easy to produce malformed fruit. The application is safer. Its use concentration is 30-50 mg/kg. When applying, strictly according to the specification requirements for preparation, will be a good solution into a small bowl, add red paint, will open a 3 to 4 flower spikes dip, gently shake the inflorescence, so that excess solution into the bowl in. However, after the initial use, the fruit enlargement was slower and gradually accelerated after half a month.

Fourth, prevention and treatment of diseases

1. Tomatoes late blight. The selection of disease-resistant varieties, a reasonable rotation; control of temperature and humidity, can not flood irrigation, timely ventilation and humidity, reduce air humidity; timely pruning, hiccups, removal of the old leaves, to improve light conditions. If a diseased plant is found, remove it immediately and control it with a chemical agent. Spray 45% per acre with chlorothalonil or 1% with 5% chlorothalonil dust or 500% with 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder. 72% DuPont Ke Lu 500 times, spray once every 7 days, even spray 3 to 4 times.

2. Tomato gray mold. Use sterile soil to prepare nutrient soil, and use 50% carbendazim 500 times liquid to disinfect the bed surface; strengthen ventilation management to reduce air humidity and prevent condensation of leaves; air humidity should be kept below 80% to avoid watering or pouring on cloudy days. After the water met the cloudy days; clean the garden, remove the diseased fruit and diseased leaves in time; before the planting, spray the seedlings with 50% fast keratin 1500 times solution or 50% carbendazim 500 times solution to prevent the problem.

3. Tomato early blight. Seed treatment, crop rotation, reasonable close planting, strengthen field management, appropriate watering, timely ventilation and humidity removal; increase application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, improve plant resistance, timely removal of diseased fruit, diseased leaves. Can use 45% chlorothalonil or 10% fast-king smoke agent 200-250 g per acre fumigation; or use 50% carbendazim WP 500 times, 50% fast keratin 1000 times spray control, every 7 days Spray once, spray 3 to 4 times.

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