Mechanized cultivation of potato efficient techniques


Mechanized planting of potatoes can increase the speed of operation, save labor and reduce costs, but it must be done according to mechanized technical requirements in order to achieve the intended purpose. Contrast tests in recent years have demonstrated that using a single line of supporting machinery to grow potatoes, the average yield per acre has reached 2,157 kg, which is 400 kg more than the use of wood plows for sowing, cultivating, earth-cultivation and harvesting.

1. Choose flat land to be planted with mechanized potato. The terrain should be flat and gently sloped. However, the slope should be small and gentle. The ridge should be perpendicular to the contour of the slope, that is, the ridge should be sloped. Do not choose uneven and sloped plots.

2. Prepare machinery to use the single row supporting machinery developed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Institute of Weichang Manchu Mongolian Autonomous County in Hebei Province. According to the amount of work that each kind of machine can bear, consider the maintenance time during the work period and the agricultural season to prepare the machinery, and before the operation, the power machine and work machine will be well adjusted. The amount of work that can be undertaken by various kinds of machinery is: In one work season, l single-line potato planters can plant 8-13.33 hectares; l single-row cultivators can cultivate 16~26.67 hectares of potato land; 1 A single harvester harvests 8-13.33 hectares of potatoes. The supporting power machine for these machines is a 10.3~13.3 kW (14~18 horsepower) small tractor.

3. The land that is selected as a mechanized plantation for deep-spotted land preparation must be deep-felled to a depth of 20-25 cm. The heavy pressure shall be used for rolling, and shall be at a certain angle with the ridge to eliminate the sulcus.

4. Fertilizers and pesticides should be spread evenly on the ground by hand or with a spreader, according to the prescribed amount, as a base fertilizer for farmyard manure, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. After the sowing, combine the depression with fertilizer and pesticides into the soil. Planters equipped with fertilisers can also be used. Fertilizers and pesticides are applied at the time of sowing.

5. Preparation of Seed Potato Seed Potatoes must be selected and planted in accordance with planting requirements. The most important thing is to cut the buds so that each bud reaches 40 to 50 grams and the size is uniform. Don't have long or flat piece buds to reduce the number of empty plants and double plants, and ensure that sowing quality meets agronomic requirements.

6. The planting conditions for the standardized sowing of mechanized planting potatoes are the same as those for general planting, but planting with a potato planter can complete the ditching, spot buds and soil covering once. When planting with a potato planter, the depth of sowing and the thickness of the cover soil must be adjusted so that the sowing depth is about 10 cm and the thickness of the earth covering is about 15 cm. Planting specifications, row spacing is 90 cm, spacing between plants is 20 cm, or row spacing is 80 cm, and plant spacing is 22 cm. Planting density is about 3700 per mu. The row spacing can no longer be small, otherwise the tractor can be used for field management and can't go in when harvesting. It should also be noted that the row spacing must be uniform, otherwise it is easy to injure the seedlings when cultivating the soil with a tractor and reduce the number of trees.

7. Field management The field management of potato planting by mechanization is the same as general planting. Within 1 week after sowing, with a light wood rake or a wood dragger for 1 time before the seedlings dragging, you can make the earth crushed and solid, and play a role in warming and keeping warm. The cultivating soil, topdressing and weed control are carried out twice, the first time after the emergence of the seedlings, and the second time when the seedling height is 15 to 20 centimeters, each time the thickness of the earth is about 5 centimeters. When cultivating soil in cultivators, the angle, depth and width of the ploughshare and ploughshare must be adjusted in order to ensure that neither the seedlings nor the soil can be cultivated.

8. Harvest about 10 days before mechanical harvesting, rolling or cutting the pods to age the potatoes, so as to reduce the damage of the pods during harvesting. The key to using mechanical harvesting is to adjust the depth of the plough shovel into the soil before the harvester enters the ground. Into the soil, it is easy to injure the potato block, and the harvest is not clean; if the soil is too deep, power is wasted, and the potatoes and soil are also not well separated, and it is also easy to lose the potatoes. In addition, the speed of the shaker screen must be adjusted to ensure that the potatoes and soil are well separated and do not lose potatoes. If the soil moisture is high, the harvester can walk slowly to separate the potatoes and soil. Otherwise, the potato chips can easily fall into the soil and be buried in the soil.

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