Feeding of pre-weaning dairy cows


First, start feeding solid foods

Fresh calves and small dairy cows that use liquid food as their main feed are different from ruminants because they only have one stomach that functions as the stomach. When the calf eats milk or milk substitutes, the esophageal sulcus is closed so that the milk bypasses the retort-rug directly into the stomach. However, after starting to feed solid foods, the esophageal sulcus gradually lost its function, the bacterial group in the rumen began to build, and the rumen wall began to develop. Eventually, small dairy cows can use and digest fibrous feed due to the establishment and growth of the microbiome in the rumen. Observing 2-4 months of calf rumination can be used to conclude that the rumen is functional.

Therefore, providing and feeding solid food as soon as possible can accelerate rumen development and early weaning (5-8 weeks of age).

1, rumen development

It is not until the rumen is functioning properly and can maintain the nutritional needs of the calf, and the final product (volatile fatty acid) produced by the rumen fermentation is a stimulant for rumen development. Rumens lacking solid food stimulation will not develop. This technique that limits the development of rumen can be used to feed small beef cattle. This shows that solid food intake is critical to the development of the rumen. After the calf eats solid foods, normal bacteria, protozoa, and fungi are naturally established in the rumen. Although there are hundreds of microorganisms attached to feed pellets in the rumen, only a dozen microorganisms are the main group. Only those bacteria (anaerobic bacteria) that can ferment carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions can rapidly grow in the rumen. The final products produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates (especially acetic acid and butyric acid) are important stimuli for rumen development. Therefore, intake of high-starch feed is more important for rumen development than roughage. Feeding highly palatable calf feeds (all types of grain mixed feed) as early as possible is very important for promoting the rapid development of the rumen and smooth passage through the weaning period.

2. When should you start feeding calf feed?

Feed the calf feed 4 days after birth and continue feeding for 4 months (about 6-8 weeks after weaning). In the first two weeks after birth, calves eat only a small amount of solid food. Try to encourage the calf to eat solid calf feed. E.g:

Calf feeds should incorporate syrup or other palatability ingredients;

Feed the calf feed in small amounts several times to keep the feed fresh;

The calf should be restricted to eat milk, and the maximum amount of milk consumed per day is no more than 10% of its birth weight;

Clean and fresh water should be provided when feeding calves. As drinking water increases, dry feed intake also increases.

Immediately after calf drinking, put a small amount of calf feed on the calf's mouth or the bottom of the milk tank;

Calf feed can also be fed with a teat to promote uptake

3. Should hay and concentrate feed be fed?

Early studies showed that the mixture of high quality hay and concentrate was necessary for the normal development of the rumen. The effect of fiber or roughage is believed to help increase the rumen capacity and maintain the normal shape of rumen wrinkles. However, recent studies have shown that direct feeding of hay has no advantage if fed with a calf feed containing enough fiber. In contrast, carbohydrates in concentrates are extremely important because carbohydrates provide calves with acetic and butyric acids that are essential for the development of the rumen wall. If the calf feed contains less than 25% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hay should be supplied. In addition, calf feed should contain 18% crude protein, 75-80% digestible nutrition (TDN), and should also contain appropriate vitamins A, D, and E.

There are two types of calf feed: grain calf feed and full-price calf feed. Full-price calf feed has a higher fiber content (ie, less energy) than corn feed, but both calf feeds can be combined with adult feed ingredients (except urea). The full-price calf feed is slightly less palatable than the grain-based calf feed and therefore has a lower intake. Feeding calf feed before weaning does not require additional roughage.

In general, the grain components in the calf feed are coarse particles that have been rough milled. Because the feed pellets are too fine to promote rumen peristalsis, the finely ground feed is not suitable for feeding calves. It is usually possible to add 5% syrup to the calf feed to improve palatability. When the calf intakes 1.5-2.0 kilograms of calf feed per day (three months old), the cheaper concentrate mix can be fed.

Second, weaning

Weaning should be performed when the calf grows well and consumes at least 1% of the calf's diet (500-600 grams for small cattle and 700-800 grams for large cattle). Smaller or weak calves should continue to feed milk. Feed milk only once a day in the week before weaning. Most calves can be weaned at 5-8 weeks of age. Calves fed on grain calf feeds may be weaned weeks earlier than calves fed full calf feed. Weaning before four weeks of age is a greater risk and can lead to high mortality. However, weaning increases consumption after eight weeks because:

Feeding calves after weaning is cheaper than milk or milk substitutes;

Feeding only liquid foods limits calf growth.

If the calf is able to transition to eating solid feeds (calf and roughage) well after weaning, the weight of the calf will increase significantly.

As mentioned above, feeding the calf feed before weaning and then re-supplying the roughage would be better for the calf's nutritional needs and ruminal development. However, quality hay or silage should be fed after weaning. The ingredients in the feed formulation should be carefully monitored especially when the feed formula contains corn silage. After weaning, as feed intake increases, body weight can and should rise to long-term ideal levels.

Artificial Sweeteners
We are a young, energetic, and competent company, specializing in high quality Sweeteners for food products, Collagen for good health supplement products, pharmaceutical intermediate for medicines, and technical active ingredients for biocidal products. We have different lines of sweeteners, artificial sweeteners are our major products, and we have our own brand, its NovoSweet. All of our NovoSweet artificial sweeteners are high-intensity sweeteners with the sweetness level from 200 to 8000 times. They are Sucralose (600X), Aspartame (200X), Acesulfame Potassium (200X) and Neotame (8000-13000X). We are establishing one-stop service for our clients who have the needs for various sweeteners.

Why choose our NovoSweet Sweeteners?
GMP Standard workshop
ISO9001, ISO22000, Kosher, Hahal, BRC, Organic certificates etc.
Advanced equipment and Sufficient production capacity
Perfect pre-sale and after-sales service provides professional solution for every customer

Complete products line covers all requirements

Artificial SweetenersArtificial SweetenersCertification

Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial Sweeteners,Sucralose Splenda,Aspartame Granular,Acesulfame Potassium

Nanjing Sunshine Biotech Co., Ltd , http://www.sunshine-bio.com